Usually it is a huge, by our standards, tree up to 25 meters. to Greece has a very indirect relationship: the fruits were brought from the south, and "there is everything in Greece." Surely there he grows too, wild forms of this tree are common in Europe.
The tree looks impressive. A single growing nut is not only different in height - its crown also reaches a diameter of 20 meters.
By European standards, it is long-lived (second after oak) - Often there are instances of 300-400-year-old trees.
The development of a tree begins with the formation of a strong taproot, which reaches 1.5 meters in depth in the 5th year and 3.5 meters by the age of 20.
The horizontal ones do not grow right away - they form after the core, being located in the surface layer of the soil at a depth of 20-50 centimeters.
The tree begins to bear fruit after 10 years of life, and from 30-40 years of age comes a time of full fruiting.
But such cases are rare, only a tree aged 150-170 years is capable of such a crop. Usually, an adult tree of 25–40 years in Moldova produces 1,500–2,000 fruits or 2,000–2,500 in the Crimea.
Moscow region, central Russia - where else can you plant and grow walnut
They are found in the European part of the foothills of the Caucasus to St. Petersburgwhere grow the most northern in Russia nuts. But these are isolated cases, exceptions, which only prove the rule.
These trees do not freeze out completely, but they do not grow in full force.
The main factor determining the possibility of growing this southern tree is not a minus winter temperature. The sum of average daily temperatures above 10 degrees is taken into account. It can not be less than 190 C.
Manchurian hybrids with walnuts showed the best winter hardiness.
When planting even the best seed brought from the south, adaptation to the cold climate does not occur - these trees regularly freeze and practically do not bear fruit.
It is not suitable for growing varieties from places with a humid warm climate. (west and south of Ukraine, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus).
Only nuts from eastern Ukraine, the mountains of Central Asia or the Caucasus successfully adapt to the new conditions of central Russia.
And, it is better to grow a nut out of the stone - imported seedling (even from the specified regions) will be significantly inferior in terms of endurance and adaptability to new conditions.Walnut is found in the European part of Russia from the foothills of the Caucasus to St. Petersburg
How and when to plant and grow a tree from a seedling: conditions
It must be immediately put on a permanent place.. Already a 5-year-old tree to transplant is unrealistic. Therefore, to determine the need to take into account all factors and calculate the consequences.
A strong-grown tree can form a dense shade over an area of approximately 100 sq.m. This area you have to strike out of circulation - there is little to bear fruit under a walnut (A strong suppressive effect of the biofield of a huge tree affects).
Place for landing choose on the edge of the gardenso as not to shade other trees. The nut is very unpretentious to the ground, although it prefers loose sandy-stony soil.Walnut prefers loose sandy-stony soil, it should not be too fertile
A landing pit is being dug with the expectation that there should be a layer of stones at least 25 centimeters below the roots.
The bottom of the landing pit must be half filled with construction debris (broken brick, pieces of cement, crushed stone) - this technique allows you to shift the flowering time of the tree for 1-2 weeks (the stones warm up slowly, the nut starts growing a little later, skipping the frost period).
Half a bucket of ash, compost or humus is brought into the pit.. The soil should not be too fertile, the nut will grow intensively and will not have time to prepare for winter.
A sapling for planting should be taken only from a trusted seller, otherwise you will not get anything except frostbitten branches of the southern tree, you probably will not get a harvest.
It is believed that a nut planted with its own hands from a bone will grow into a tree that is practically adapted to new conditions, which will develop successfully.
Seeds are planted in the fall directly into the ground at a depth of 7-10 cm. It is advisable to lay in the soil sideways on the seam. Spring planting requires 2-3 months of stratification in wet sand.
Special care for the seedlings is not required - in the middle lane even nut has no pests.
How to plant a one-year nut seedling:
Care after planting: spring, summer and autumn
How to care? Walnut may need watering only in spring and early summerwhen there is an intensive growth of green mass. Usually, the tree has enough soil reserves of winter moisture.
Water only young trees up to 5-7 years, if it is completely dry.
The core root system of the southern tree is adapted to find water in the lower horizons. After 10 years of age, watering nut should be forgotten.
For him, excess moisture threatens too active growth, to the detriment of ripening and preparation of wood for the winter. Frosting after a wet summer is guaranteed.
In addition to the cessation of watering, you need to take care of the preparation for the winter of the root system. Therefore, tree trunks need to be mulched with any organic matter or compost:
- in the summer - to preserve moisture;
- in the autumn - to protect the top layer of soil from freezing.
It is useful to cover shtambs up to a height of about 1 m with laparms or wrap them in several layers (after the first frost). This will help survive -40 degrees and lower.
Such shelter is necessary only in the early years. - The tree should be hardened naturally.A walnut may need watering only in spring and early summer when there is an intensive growth of green mass.
How to take care in the process of growing: before ripening and after
Like all fruit crops, walnut needs periodic feeding.
In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, in the second half of summer - only potash and phosphorus fertilizers, which are responsible for preparing the tree for the winter and laying the fruit buds of the next crop.
In the cultivated soil, nitrogen can not be fed at all, and phosphate and potash fertilizers should be applied (in terms of the active substance) at 10 g / sq.
Practice shows that the rule applies to all cases where the nut does not grow on obvious stones and clay.
What particularly pleases - walnut has no natural enemies in the middle lane. It has already been said that flies and mosquitoes fly around him.
Not only that - a very effective remedy against aphids and various caterpillars can be prepared from the nut leaves, which is successfully used in Ukraine.
Absolutely harmless to people home remedy allows you to handle trees and bushes with fruit and berries.
Unfortunately, walnut cuttings are not rooted - reproduction occurs only by seed.
Vaccination is carried out in cases where:
- there is certainly a seedling of a winter-hardy Manchurian walnut, for which -40 is not a problem in winter;
- the planted variety did not meet expectations - the opportunity arose to re-vaccine it.
Annual seedlings are grafted and under the control they grow in a greenhouse to the presentation.
Young trees that have already given the first few nuts, can pereprivit type "budding eye" - only the bark is removed from the kidney in the form of a half tube (the method is called so) and is combined with the same cutout on the rootstock.
Before complete healing, the vaccination site is tied with a film.
The result of grafting an adult walnut tree:
Reproduction in the country
The main method of obtaining seedlings - growing from seed. To simplify the process, nuts without additional processing are planted in the fall to a depth of about 10 centimeters. It is believed that it is better to lay them sideways on the seam.
The walnut is restored by the pneumat overgrown in just a year or two. These trees are able to produce fruit literally in the second year, and in 10 - already a significant crop.The main method of obtaining seedlings - growing from seed
It turns out that a walnut can successfully be planted and grown in a country house in the middle lane, in the Moscow region. It is enough to follow simple rules:
- correct choice of location;
- sapling - only zoned;
- obligatory mulching of the wheel circle;
- shelter cover from frost in the first years of life.
Most gardeners can do this.. Choose a sunny place protected from cold winds - the nut will thank you.