This pear variety was created at the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy by scientists Potapov and Chizhov. When crossing the varieties were used Forest Beauty and Olgawhich gave great taste and resistance to many diseases.
Pear Chizhovskaya underwent varietal testing and in 1933 was zoned (proposed for cultivation) in three regions: Middle Volga, Central and North-West. But most often this variety is cultivated in the gardens of the Samara, Moscow and Vladimir regions. In this article, you can familiarize yourself with the characteristics and description of the Chizhovskaya pear variety - ripening terms, peculiarities of care, tree diseases and methods of combating them.
Crown of treeshaped like a pyramid or cone, formed of slightly curved branches. The length and thickness of shoots covered with reddish-brown or brownish bark is average. Skeletal branches painted in a grayish tint, and the trunk - in dark gray.Pear varieties Chizhovskaya
The height of the tree (standard type) can vary from 1.8 to 2.5 meters. A small number of lenticles (formations with small holes, covered with a loose cloth) are located on the trunk almost at ground level. The dark brown, slightly deviated buds are cone-shaped.
Medium sized leaves are colored beautiful green. They have the shape of an elongated oval, and on the edge there are small serrate teeth. Leaves with a smooth upper and lower surfaceThey are attached to the branches using cuttings of medium length.
Medium-sized whitish flowers are cup-shaped. The corolla is formed by petals with a solid edge. The buds are also like flowers painted in pure white. They are collected in the inflorescences of the shield type of 5-7 pieces.
Fruit characteristics, ripening time
Chizhevsky grade gives obovate or classical pear-shaped fruits of medium size, whose weight can vary from 110 to 140 grams. The smooth surface of pears with small dots is covered with a thin matte skin, dry to the touch.
Fruits are evenly colored (color can vary from green to yellowish) without bright pinkish spots. They are attached to the branches with short stalks. The number of brown seeds with pointed tips in one pear varies from 5 to 10 pieces..
The fruits of this variety attract the attention of a delicate slightly oily flesh, which emits a subtle subtle flavor. The flesh can be colored whitish yellow or light yellowish. The sweet and sour taste of this sort of pear was obtained from the tasters from 4.1 to 4.2 points. Fruits can be used fresh, as well as in the preparation of marinades, compotes and juices.. Pears contained a large amount of sugars, soluble and dry substances, and vitamin P.Pear fruit Chizhovskaya
Variety Chizhovskaya refers to mid-season hybrids that ripen in late summer or early autumn (Aug. Sept). Fruits can stay on the branches for a long time, but what is especially interesting, being fully ripe, when falling on soft ground or grass, they do not deteriorate and are stored for about a week. At a temperature of 0 degrees, fruits are stored for 2 to 4 months.. Fruits perfectly withstand transportation over long distances.
Since the Chizhovskaya pear sets fruit only when it is cross-pollinated (almost self-bearing), certain varieties — the pollinators (Rogneda, Severyanka, Lada) are planted next to it to obtain regular and large yields. They are usually located at a distance of 4 to 5 meters from the main variety.
This variety is especially liked by gardeners for Trees are beginning to bring crops for 3-4 year cultivation and it happens regularly. Adult copies can give up to 50 kilograms from one tree.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among other varieties of pear Chizhovskaya stands out:
- great scab resistant and to other diseases;
- high winter hardiness;
- endurance to bad climatic conditions.
The disadvantages include a significant decrease in the weight of the fruit with increasing age of the tree. If young pears are fruits weighing 110-140 grams, then at 10 years of age they weigh about 80-90 grams.
Site Selection and Landing
For planting pears Chizhovskaya choose lighted places with permeable, loose soil and enough nutrients. Be sure to ensure that the groundwater is located at great depths.
The optimal landing time is autumn.when the growing season is completely over (leaves have completely flown around the seedling). But you can do this in the spring, before the moment of awakening of the kidneys (the beginning of the growing season).
A hole for planting is dug 60 in 60 by 80 cm in size. If the soil in the garden or the dacha is bad, the dimensions of the pit are increased by 20-30 cm. or small rubble. The height of the layer can vary from 10 to 15 cm.Pear Pit
Where there is a lot of sand in the ground, clay soil is deposited on the bottom of the pit with a layer of 5 to 10 cm. This is done so that water and nutrients do not quickly go to the lower layers of the earth.
It is best to buy seedlings at the age of 1 to 3 years for planting. But the fastest growing trees are 1-2 years old. The height of such seedlings varieties Chizhovskaya usually in the range from 1.3 to 1.8 meters. The length of the roots must be at least 20 cm, and the thickness of the trunk is greater than 1-1.5 cm.
Before planting, the root system should preferably be processed in a solution of heteroauxin or any other stimulator for root growth.. The roots are soaked from 3 to 12 hours. Before planting, they are examined, shortened, broken, and very long.
The roots in the planting pit should be placed freely and evenly. To sleep preparing the earth mixture from the garden of fertile land, completely rotted manure (humus), as well as potassium sulfate (350 grams) and superphosphate (350 grams). First, they put good garden soil (a layer from 10 to 15 cm) onto the roots, and then with a mixture with mineral fertilizers.
After planting, spill the planting site with plenty of water and fill up the subsided soil. The surface of the earth around the trunk is desirable to be mulched. (cover) with peat, husk, wood chips or sawdust. This technique helps to preserve moisture in the ground, protects against compaction and does not allow a large number of weeds to appear.Mulching land after planting pear
Do not forget, when planting, place a peg between the roots that will hold the seedling during bad weather.
Pear Care Chizhovskaya
Care for pears Chizhovskaya variety is feeding, watering, pruning and the fight against diseases and pests.
Constant watering throughout the season only young pears in the first 3-4 years after planting. Wherein you need to ensure that the soil is impregnated to the entire depth of the roots. Such irrigation helps fast survival and good plant growth.Young pears need abundant watering
Mature trees are watered only a few times per season (from 3 to 7), but you can’t spare water. Be sure to water the pears before flowering and immediately after it ends.and also in the autumn period (at the end of the season).
In order for this pear variety to grow well, develop and yield crops, additional fertilizing is needed. Saplings are fed once a year at the very beginning of spring.. To this end, the near-trunk circle is mulched with rotted manure (layer height from 4 to 6 cm), and mineral fertilizers are also added (azofoska or Kemira). One tree is enough from 100 to 150 grams.Fertilizer fruit trees
Adult pear trees are fed in the fall while digging. To do this, use half-rotted cow dung or other organic fertilizers. It is also necessary to add potassium sulfate and superphosphate (250-350 grams each). In order for the fertilizers to reach the roots in sufficient quantity, they are scattered across the diameter of the crown and buried to the depth of not less than 35 cm during digging.
Also held and additional feedingwhich can partially regulate the size of the crop. If the number of fruits on the tree started small, then feeding is carried out before the ovary is dropped. And if the fruit turned out a lot, then feeding is carried out after the fall of the ovaries.
Newly planted trees are pruned only in early spring, even if they were planted in the fall. When pruning seedlings should be remembered, the side branches should be located on the trunk not lower than 50-70 cm from the ground surface. Their length should not exceed 30-40 cm. The central shoot is shortened so that it rises 15-30 cm above the highest side branch.Circuit correct pruning pear
Adult pears pruning carried out twice a year. During sanitary pruning, all broken, dried and diseased shoots, as well as old branches, are removed. At another time, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, with the help of which intensive growth of the plant is restored and maintained at a good level, as well as the number of flower dots are regulated.
When conducting anti-aging pruning be sure to cut out perennial branches to 3-5-year-old and older shoots. Be sure to follow the annual growth. If it is less than 15-20 cm, then pruning is carried out weakly (for 2-3 summer branches). If the size of the increase is less than 15 cm, the shoots are cut to older branches. To prevent the crown from becoming thickened, some of the fruit-bearing branches inside it are removed.
Pests and control of them
Chizhovskaya pear may be attacked by the following pests: apple green for aphids, pear leaf bunks (hedgehog), Californian shchitovka, pear bug, pear gall mite, apple tsvetoyod and bekarka.
- Pear Leaflet
- Pear gall mite
- Pear bug
- California shield
- Apple aphid
- Apple Blossom
Larvae of beech feed on leaf tissues and fruit ovaries, causing the leaves and ovaries to crumble. For the destruction of this pest use insecticidal preparations with a wide spectrum of action, for example, Enzio.
Apple beetle beetles in early spring they gnaw swollen buds and eat their inner parts. Because of this attack, the kidneys lose their juice. Tsvetoeda larvae laid in buds feed on pistil and stamens. The flowers first turn brown and then dry. To combat it, the following drugs are suitable: Spark, Fufanol, Karate, Fastak and Sherpa. Usually only one treatment is performed.
Among the most dangerous diseases for this type of pear are cytosporosis, root cancer and freezers.
Cytosporosis most often appears on the bark of the trunk and perennial branches that create the skeleton of a tree. It appears as a red-brown spot, slightly indented. Soon, quite large cracks appear on the edges of the stain and on healthy wood, and the crust on the stain softens. If the disease has appeared quite recently, then the stain is carefully cleaned, treated with copper sulphate and special garden pitch.Cytosporosis injured pear
Freezers appear with a strong decrease in temperature, when the outer layers of the tree are cooled more strongly than the inner ones. The gaps obtained as a result of frosts are cleaned to healthy wood, then treated with Bordeaux liquor or copper sulfate and covered with pitch.Freezers on a tree trunk
Root cancer appears in the pears as growths at the sites of grafting, near the root collar and on the roots. First, soft growths from time to time increase in size and harden. The emergence of root cancer leads to the suspension of growth and development of young trees. On adult pears, it has almost no negative effect.Root cancer
So that this disease does not appear in your garden, need to buy healthy seedlings in industrial nurseries. And do not plant them in the place where infected fruit trees grew.
Borovchanka: Pear "Chizhovskaya" we planted in a cottage near Borovsk in 1998 with one-year sapling. The tree grew without problems. Although the site on our high ground and blown heavily by the winds, she never froze. Every year we looked forward to at least one fruit to know the taste. A couple of times there were several fruits, but they did not reach us. While we came once again, the birds already had time to peck them, and they fell. But our patience was rewarded! Last year we received a wonderful harvest! Our beauty looked so gorgeous with the fruits that we were sorry to deprive her of such a dress! Husband was happy, like a child, and gently pressed pears to himself. The taste of this variety is amazing. The flesh is juicy, sweet. And what a scent !!! You can safely grow this variety in our conditions. Country forum
Syoma: Chizhovskaya pear began to bear fruit for 2 years after planting the seedling, bears fruit every year. Frosts in winter and drought endures without any visible consequences.. Garden star