Rabbits are extraordinarily prolific animals, for an adult female to give life to 60-70 rabbits per year is the norm. But an uncontrolled increase in livestock is not required, the rabbit needs healthy and strong rabbits with positive, stable signs.
In this article we will talk in more detail about the age at which rabbits can happen, how to do it correctly and when it happens after a hunt.
Favorable age and season for the first mating
First, let's look at the age at which rabbits begin to breed and when it is possible to happen the first time. The rabbit reaches puberty by 3 months after birth. Avoiding accidental coatings, from this age, animals are sorted and seated, based on their gender.
However, to get healthy and strong offspring, 3 months is still an early age. Therefore, 4-month-old rabbits are suitable for the planned mating of rabbits.
This age is not considered an exceptional rule. So, if the farm contains rabbits of meat breeds, then the first mating starts from 5 or even from 6 months.
However, it is not necessary to overdo it. Non-breeding animals are gaining excess weight, lose interest in the partner, and there are few such animals.
Volcanoes in natural conditions occur year-round. On average, a healthy female has 6–7 okrols annually. In late autumn and winter, their frequency is less frequent due to weather factors. October and November are considered unfavorable for bonding.Selection of rabbits for mating
but the best offspring grows more often in winter. Rabbits born during the cold season are healthier, stronger than their summer relatives. If the goal of raising rabbits is to get fur, then winter is the most favorable season for mating rabbits. It is also worth avoiding the bunnies of rabbits during active molting.
For successful mating, time of day also matters. In summer, morning hours are best suited for mating, as it is not yet hot. In winter or in cold weather, the warmest hours of the day, that is, daytime.
Partner selection and pairing
In the selection of males and females suitable for mating, the following criteria are based:
- Animals must be healthy and be in the right age and condition. To obtain high-quality offspring, individuals over 3 years old, fattened rabbits, animals with underdeveloped or damaged genitals, are not suitable;
- Rabbits must carry the best traits of their breed or their individual qualities best fit the rabbit breeder;
- For jacketing, it is advisable to select winter rabbits, as well as those born in early litters from the rabbit. These rabbits are best suited for the role of producers;
- No mating of related individuals is allowed.. With a lack of animals, they can always be found on the side. It is worth remembering the need for quarantine and a thorough health check for new animals poured into the herd, especially when it comes to producers.
In addition to the choice of active and strong individuals, experienced rabbitrels also pay attention to the mother and brothers (sisters) of the future producer. If there were many weak or sick rabbits in the litter, and also the mother has flaws (frequent miscarriages, poor temperament), then the likelihood of their recurrence is high.Choice of breed for mating
In addition to individual choice of partners, experienced breeders pay attention to the formation of pairs. Ideal option - carrying out several cases at the same time. In this case, the surplus (shortage) of rabbits in litters can be mutually compensated, and the choice of future producers will be more.
When forming a pair, they also take into account the experience of the male and female.
Rejection of animals
Frequently situations when the manufacturer loses its status. There are several reasons:
- Rare or, conversely, too frequent matings lead to the loss of the positive properties of the manufacturer;
- The onset of the "limit" age. The best offspring in rabbits 1-2 years of age;
- The presence of the disease, leading to frequent miscarriages. The death of several litters in a row indicates that the rabbit has listeriosis - a dangerous disease that is inherited;
- The loss of the maternal instinct in the rabbit, reaching the destruction of his own offspring - a clear sign of the unsuitability of the animal for further reproduction;
The fecundity of rabbits gives their owner ample opportunities for selection. Therefore, if for some individual signs there are doubts about the suitability of the rabbit for reproduction, then it is better to replace it.Male rejection
Proper preparation of the rabbit for breeding
The key stage of preparation for mating is the determination of the rabbit's readiness for motherhood, otherwise called the hunting period. Its duration depending on the season is 3-5 days.
Between hunting periods pairing is unlikely. The intervals between the next hunting females also range from 5 to 10 days. In winter, they can last longer, as the sexual activity of animals decreases.
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- How to feed the little rabbits?
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- Feature breeding rabbits in the pit.
To determine the period of hunting is quite simple. This is evidenced by:
- Increased activity of the rabbit;
- Plucking down on the belly;
- Preparation of materials for the nest.
For credibility check the state of the penis rabbit, called loop. Its redness and swelling clearly indicate the onset of a hunting period in the female.
There is no such limitation for males.
Immediately before mating, it is important to properly prepare the cage.
From the cage of the crawl remove all unnecessary, including watering and feeding trough. The animal will not eat. The cage must be washed and sanitized. Only after that can the rabbit sit down to the partner.
The diet of rabbits before mating should always be more nutritious. For what proportion of feed, oats, grains, legumes, it is desirable to increase.
Steamed potatoes and oats are very useful for males. Feed these foods begin for 1.5-2 weeks. Sprouted wheat is very useful for females. Good nutrition increases the number of baby rabbits in the litter and makes them healthier.Mate male to female
And now let's learn how to rabbits for the first and subsequent times. In small farms, where it is not possible to carry out artificial insemination, two methods of mating are practiced:
- Replanting the rabbit to the male for a long time - 5-7 days. In this situation, the animals themselves are determined with the best mating option. At first it is advisable to watch the animals. Cases of fights, if the partner did not like - not uncommon. If partners are aggressive and it ends in a fight, then animals should be seated in order to avoid serious injuries;
- The second option is a short-term replanting of the female for 2-3 hours.. The disadvantage of this method is the need for constant monitoring and, possibly, intervention of a rabbit breeder. Determine the moment of coating visually is not difficult. It lasts for half a minute. After coating, the crawl falls to the side and makes a characteristic squeak - a signal to the rabbit breeder that partners can be seated. If the partners are too flattering and do not intercourse, then the experienced rabbitks simply hold the rabbit with their hands, allowing the male to quickly complete their work.
A successful rabbit cover does not guarantee pregnancy. Therefore, for fidelity, control mating is carried out 5-6 days after the first pairing. There are no features for the control connection.
Often, control pairing is also a test of the results of the first mating. If the rabbit shows aggression and does not allow a proven partner in itself, you can be sure that there is no need for test pairing.
If the mating passes as usual, its date is noted, and, accordingly, after another 5-6 days, another control pairing is performed.Replanting for control mating
Checking the results of mating
Accurately verify the effectiveness of mating can be done within 15 days after its implementation. To do this, the rabbit's stomach very gently probe. There are videos on the Internet showing this procedure, therefore, in order to avoid causing the rabbit harm, it would be useful to view them.
The presence of one or two chains of oblong lumps is a clear indication of pregnancy.
Rabbit's failure to mate
If the rabbit does not allow the crawl, then the breeders choose one of the following options:
- Animals sit down to each other after some time, for example, after 2-3 hours. If the situation repeats, the procedure is repeated after one day;
- If the first method did not work, then you can change the male. Often, this is the most successful option.
Forced or occasional inbreeding
Inbreeding or, to put it simply, related crossbreeding also occurs in experienced breeders. When keeping the herd together (in the pit, aviary, etc.), occasional crossing occurs periodically.
Another problem is the impossibility of finding a pair of your own animals, suitable for health, external data or breed. Then inbreeding becomes forced.
Dozens of scientific papers have been written about the pros and cons of inbreeding; therefore, without going into unnecessary details, let us give an example from practice. Even the ancient pastoralists sought to eliminate the crossing of relatives of similar animals. Experimentally verified that regular inbreeding in a herd leads to degeneration. Although in the laboratory, inbreeding and practiced for the withdrawal of new breeds.Possibility of related mating when kept in a pit
If in your household, for some reason, a kindred interbreeding did occur, then experienced rabbitks are guided by the following recommendations:
- They try in every way to prevent cross-breeding of the born rabbits with other relatives on the paternal or maternal line. Proceeding from this, in a small herd, all the rabbits born from such a crossing are likely to go for meat, and in the future will not participate in reproduction;
- When forced inbreeding, they try to select a pair with the weakest possible kinship, that is, distant relatives. Given the fertility of rabbits, this is quite realistic;
- All rabbits born with birth defects, and more and more of them will be removed from the herd with each subsequent mating.
How can it happen in the cold season?
A rabbit breeder should not fear winter intercourse. However, to prevent frostbite and death of animals adhere to the following recommendations:
- Winter bonding held warm, in the closed and heated rooms. A suitable temperature for rabbits is the range of 19-27 degrees of heat. If it is impossible to achieve the desired temperature, then a drop of 3-5 degrees is not critical. With proper cell warming, it is permissible to produce healthy offspring and at 10 degrees of heat. However, the rabbit's worst enemy is not low temperature, but drafts and dampness that must be eliminated;
- Rabbits must be fed, and the diet is as varied as possible. Suitable for winter feeding to future parents of potatoes, legumes, oats, sprouted grains of wheat, maize and other cereals;
- Animals within 1-2 weeks before and during mating long daylight hours required, at least 12 hours a day. Artificial light is allowed. Insufficient illumination leads to extremely few okrols (1-2 rabbits) or it is the main obstacle for successful mating.
Now you know how and at what age rabbits happen. However, we note that the experience comes to the breeders with years and mistakes. However, a careful study of the issue, the use of advice and the help of experienced rabbitks will save you from many, often fatal mistakes and will allow you to get healthy rabbits with the right signs.
And finally, we offer to watch a small video from which you will learn when rabbits are covered: