Chickens Leghorn (Leghorn) - a productive breed of egg direction, first bred in Italy. Today it is the basis for creating variations of crosses of egg breeds in developed poultry farming. There are more than 20 colors of the leggorn hens, including white, which are distinguished by their performance and unpretentiousness. Species lines are continuously improved and increased.
Appearance, description and photo
In Russia, mostly leggorn with white feathers are bred. Given that the species range of these chickens is developed, there are birds with brown, black, blue, motley, golden plumage. Signs of the appearance of leggorn include:
- small size and weight;
- vertical body in the form of a blade;
- elongated body;
- medium-sized head, leaf-shaped crest standing in roosters and hanging in hens, white or blue earlobes, red earrings;
- the iris of the eyes in adult chickens is pale yellow in color, in young representatives of dark orange color;
- developed round chest;
- straight back;
- average leg length in adult chickens;
- young people have yellow skin, and adults have skin color;
- long wide tail of a rooster at an angle of 40 ° to the body;
- plumage dense.
Temperament - where better to keep in a cage or on a walk
Chickens breed Leggorn active, always in motion. Keep them recommended in the barn with the possibility of walking. The small size of the birds will save space when choosing a barn. For full development to the place of detention it is necessary to provide access to fresh air and light. Chickens should live clean. Shed necessarily equipped with perches, feeders, nests.
For walking only a small area, enclosed by a grid. The height of the fence should not be made less than 1.5 m, so that chickens do not fly over the fence. Feeding troughs and drinkers are needed on the walk. In the warm season, chickens better be on the street. They love poking around in the ground in search of worms, pebbles. It is desirable that in the fenced area grew grass. If there is none, then several times a day chickens should be fed with tops from carrots, beets and other vegetation. In the cold season the birds are kept in the barn.
Important!When there is no possibility of walking birds due to the cold weather, there should be trays with small stones in the shed. Birds peck them for a good rubbing of food in the goiter.
Content in the cages of chickens breed Leggorn allowed. This will save space, as long as the equipped cell is not cramped. Due to their low weight, chickens do not experience discomfort on the floor of the net. It must be tilted, and outside of the cage, egg receivers are required. The distance between the bars of the net should be sufficient for the hen to stick her head in it and freely pull it out. Cells should be cleaned, in order to avoid disease outbreaks.
Industrial farms or amateur poultry
Chickens breed Leggorn common in the poultry industry of various countries. More than 20 breeding plants throughout Russia are engaged in the transformation and creation of new varieties of this breed, such as dominant, brown leggorn, and dalmatian.
Continuous improvement made it possible to achieve laying eggs for chickens more than 200 days a year. For breeding leggornov it does not require a lot of space and feed. Therefore, today the business of growing chickens for profit is developed.
In industrial farms leggorny are grown in cells that are located in rows in the barn. Antibiotics and hormones help to cope with the diseases caused by cramping and dirt. However, they are depleted of birds, which entails a culling. In industrial conditions, chickens of the Leghorn breed are grown for a year and slaughtered to reduce egg production.
Leggorny in homestead farms
Due to the fact that no strong bird maintenance costs, they are grown even economical amateur poultry farmers, their reviews can be found below. In addition, leggorn can be contained in chicken coops with other chickens.
If for commercial purposes the White Leghorn breed chickens are raised, then in the household farms they prefer birds with different feather colors. These are mainly brown chickens, characterized by large eggs. Productivity is lower, but outwardly they are more interesting than white leggorn, which attracts poultry breeders. Among the species variations of leggorn brown occupy more than 60%. They are distributed in connection with the demand for brown eggshell.
Brown layers require more attention.than white. Feeding conditions must be strictly observed, in violation of egg production for a long time restored. In addition, these chickens are often infected with infections.
Characteristics of individuals
The weight of the hen of the Leghorn breed ranges from 1.5 to 2 kg, the males weigh 2.3-2.7 kg. They begin to carry eggs in 4 -5 months, produce 200 -250 eggs per yearand sometimes up to 300 pieces or more. One-year-old chicken eggs weigh up to 60 g, the shell is strong white.
An egg weighing 454 grams was laid by the Blanche hen of the Leggorn breed in 1956. His shell was double, the yolk was also two.
The fertility rate of eggs is 95%. Chickens are born strong; by 2 weeks they have feathers. 130 -150 g of feed are spent on the formation of one egg in a hen. The incubation instinct is absent. Per day leggorn consume from 110 to 130 g of feed. The exact figure can not be specified, since, depending on the species, the indicators vary. To grow chickens to 18 weeks, you need to spend 6 -7 kg of feed.
The species differs in that it can live in the southern and northern regions due to its ability to quickly adapt to the conditions. However, White Leghorn chickens are usually raised in poultry houses, and optimal conditions are created there, independent of weather and climate.
Reference.Russian white chickens are similar to white leggorn. The latter were bred at leggorn crosses. They are similar in appearance and basic characteristics. But Russian white wins due to the developed instinct of hatching eggs.
Chickens of breed White Leghorn are unpretentious in food and conditions of detention. When grown for profit, they are kept in cramped small cells without walking. Due to the continuous improvement of the breed, the White Leggorn is able to lay eggs for more than 200 days a year, which brings significant profit to large poultry farmers. Chickens of this species carry a large number of eggs, not only because of their modification, but also because they are given artificial feeding. These dressings destroy the chicken body, so more than a year chickens are not contained. Hormones, antibiotics help to survive in the conditions of crowdedness and dirt. In business, the main thing is egg production, so specimens trying to hatch eggs are destroyed.
This dwarf species is referred to as B-33 hens or White mini hens. Birds look tiny due to the fact that they carry a recessive dwarfism gene. The weight of the rooster is from 1.4 kg to 1.7 kg, chicken weighing less than 1.4 kg. Egg production and survival rates are high, like all leggorn. Adult chickens are white, chickens are yellow.
Dwarf leggorny, despite the activity, do not require a lot of space for content, they are suitable cell-cages. Forage Mini-chickens consume less than other breeds of birds with their size by 35 - 40 percent. Acclimatization of chickens is successful, they are not afraid of freezing temperatures.
Leghorn dwarfs are distinguished by their friendliness towards each other, they get along well with other birds. Egg fertility in this species is higherthan other leggorn and is more than 95%. This is due to the activity of mini-males. Like all Leggorn chickens, dwarfs do not hatch eggs, there can not do without an incubator. The peculiarity of the B-33 breed during incubation is long-term cooling associated with a large egg size.
Feed dwarf leggorn should be a quality and balanced food. The presence of a recessive gene alters metabolic processes, unbalanced feed adversely affect the health of chickens. In particular, Excessive protein in the diet causes the chicks to curl 8 -10 days of life. Further, they lose their limbs and die. Moreover, with improper feeding, egg production of dwarf leggorn drops significantly.
Food: chickens, adult chickens, laying hens
Food for leggorn should be fresh. The diet needs to be balanced so that the proteins and minerals get to the chickens in equal parts. However, the menu of different categories of Leggornov is different:
- Chicks need to make more protein in their food. The first day of life the chickens are fed egg yolk and cottage cheese, on the second day millet is added to the ration. Some poultry farmers feed small leggorn from birth with a special compound “Starting for Layers”, which is not expensive. At the age of 4 days, green food, such as onions, dandelions and nettles, is added to food by the chicks. Pounded eggshell is also beneficial for a growing body. Chalk is added to food on the fifth day of life. 10 days after the birth of chickens must be fed up to 6 times a day. At the age of 21 days, chickens are transferred to an adult diet and limit food intakes to 3. With proper maintenance and nutrition, the leggorn do not die, but grow and gain weight.
- For feeding adults need to use the following components:
- mineral supplements;
- slaked lime;
- a piece of chalk;
- bone flour.
Feed leggorn should be three times a day. Breakfast and dinner consist of cereals, such as barley, wheat. They should make a little salt, chalk and special vitamin supplements. For lunch at the leggorn mash, where carrots, potatoes, apples, cabbage, as well as nettle, quinoa are added. You can also add zucchini, tops from beets and carrots. Bran and bone meal are integral components of the ration of chickens for full development.
- If chickens need protein, the hens, moreover, need calcium and vitamin supplements for regular egg production. In the summer of laying hens consume vitamins from greens, and in the winter they need feeding with boiled vegetables. Calcium in the body of the chicken is restored by the consumption of crushed shells, eggshell less effective. Food for chickens should be in sufficient quantities to create eggs, as this is an energy-intensive process. Pure fresh water should be placed near the feed. In winter, it is desirable that it was warm. It is necessary for the formation of eggs.
Features of the content of leggorn
Leggorn is a breed of chickens that is adapted to the cold due to the high density of the feather. However, they carry eggs only in a warm room, where the temperature is never below 5 C. In the barn can not be allowed drafts and sharp temperature shocks. There should be warm bedding 50 cm thick of sawdust, straw, hay, so that the chickens do not hurt and their egg production does not decrease. In winter, this coating will serve as a source of heat. Formation of the crust at the top should not be allowed.
The air in the shed should not be dryas it is dangerous for chickens. The lowest value can be 45%. But excessive moisture should not be allowed. It is necessary to ensure the penetration of air and light to the place where the birds are kept, having windows and ventilation provided. If leggorny are not grown in a clean room, parasites live in feathers. You can cope with them at home with ash containers. It is more effective to use special preparations in the form of additives in food, eliminating pests. The place of maintenance leggornov need to equip.
Attention!Chickens' egg production is affected by proper sleep. The sleeping position should be comfortable, so that the perch clings tightly to the paws. Poles must be made of the appropriate diameter and rounded.
Perches are placed at a distance of 80 cm from the floor on the side opposite the window. Nests are attached near the perches on the wall.
Diseases and how to treat them
In industrial farms there is an increased noise level. This provokes a disease peculiar to the Leggorn chickens - noise hysteria. Layers during egg laying are particularly susceptible to this disease. The disease is manifested by the fact that chickens become aggressive to each other, shout, flap their wings and beat against the walls. Because of this leggorny injure themselves and others, lose some of the feathers, egg production falls. Attacks can be several times a day. In such a situation, it is necessary to immediately reduce the noise level and create ideal conditions for the production of eggs.
Advantages and disadvantages
After reviewing the description and characteristics of the breed Leggorn, it is necessary to distinguish the pros and cons of this type.
- Accelerated puberty (4-5 months), high fertility (up to 95%), maximum hatching of chickens (up to 83%).
- High egg production, low feed intake, large eggs.
- Brown shell. The shop usually manages to find only white eggs, while brown ones are rarely available for sale, they are quickly bought up.
- Leggornov grown in our country from the Caucasus to Siberia. Birds easily tolerate cold due to their dense plumage and quickly adapt to new conditions, they are characterized by a calm disposition.
- Meat characteristics of the species are poorly developed due to success in egg indices.
- High egg production only during the year, then it quickly falls
- Missing egg instinct or maternal. Incubator required for breeding chickens
- Noise and bright light can cause hysteria in chickens, typical of this species.
Olga, Vologda region Kharovsk
I grow Leghorn in spacious cages, they are better there. I live in families, even in summer. Aggressive behavior towards each other did not notice. On the run, chickens and roosters panic, run from side to side, want to crawl somewhere, do not know where to rush. Being in a cage, birds carry eggs almost every day. Only once shed. Poultry Farmers Forum
I remember that before my grandmother raised layers of this breed. They did carry eggs almost every day without a break. Their appearance is beautiful. I think about acquiring Leggorny, it remains only to build a barn, which will be comfortable for the birds. Bird magazine
Everyone says that the Leghorny are exhausted after a year, I did not notice this. My birds continue to be carried in large numbers, they look well-groomed. As for food, in constant access crushed shells, millet, proteins. I usually give the chickens kitchen waste: from dumplings to cottage cheese. For breeding Leghorn at home you need an incubator or hen hen that can incubate Leghorn. Storehouse for poultry
Breeding chickens of the Leghorn breed in a personal home farm carries only positive moments to the poultry farmer. Growing for industrial purposes also brings good profits. Unpretentiousness in the content will allow you to get tasty eggs with minimal cost. The prevalence of the breed allows you to acquire hatching eggs and young chickens at any time of the year without problems.