Breeding grapes by cutting cuttings is gaining increasing popularity. About harvesting in the fall and storing them until spring will be discussed in this article.
Why harvest cuttings of grapes in the fall for the winter
How to grape grapes in the fall? In spring or autumn, seedlings of the selected grape variety are planted at home at home. For seedlings pre-harvested cuttings. They are pruned with vines that are well developed and matured over the summer. Care of the bush includes autumn pruning necessary for the formation of a plant and removal of excess shoots, which prevents overloading the culture.
In the spring, with the grapes cleaned in the fall, you will not be able to cut the chubuki; in the winter, the time of hibernation does not develop. In addition, during the winter, due to frost, a large number of eyes and vines are killed. For this reason, cuttings are stocked at the end of the season. This should be done before the onset of frost.
How to prepare saplings in the fall
To make the cuttings well tolerated storage conditions and quickly began to develop after disembarkation, it is necessary to take into account the rules for conducting the harvesting.
How to select a vine for harvesting cuttings
To cut the chubukov choose healthy fertile bushes. The vine from which the shoot is planned to be selected should be of a uniform color (dark straw) with no signs of disease or insect damage. The diameter is 5-8 mm. Thin and thick shoots are not recommended to be harvested; preference should be given not to the old, but well-matured branch.
You can check maturity with iodine. In 1% solution you need to lower the cut and see how its color changes. Immature specimens will remain light green, and a suitable variant will acquire a purple-black shade. For the cutting, the middle part of the branch is chosen, since the top is too young and underdeveloped. Chubuki do with the 4th eye, from such blanks grow strong and prolific shoots.
Experienced winegrowers are advised to choose the vine that has developed on the sunny side for pruning, the branches that have sprouted in the shade grow worse. It is not recommended to use fat and young shoots for grafting.
Ways to cut grape cuttings
Cut for storage can be a long branch of 6-8 holes, from which in the spring pruning is done for germination. You can also prepare one of the following options:
- shortened escape for 1-2 eyes (used more often for vaccination);
- medium length trim for 3-4 eyes (this method is the most popular);
- long cuttings on 5 or more eyes.
Before you send Chubukov storage, you need to disinfect. On scraps there can be microorganisms and bacteria that will intensively begin to multiply under the conditions of moisture and heat. This will destroy the entire planting material.
To prepare a disinfectant solution, you need to dissolve a teaspoon of copper sulfate in a glass of water. Flooded with liquid spray generously spray Chubuki and allow them to dry naturally. Decontamination will protect planting material from mold and fungus during storage.Chopped Chubuk for 4-5 eyes
Preparation for storage in the cellar or refrigerator
The preparatory process involves saturating the chubukov with moisture so that they do not dry out during the wintering period. To do this, cut the shoots are immersed in a container of water and kept in it for a day. After that, the planting material is disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate within 30 minutes.
Instead of potassium permanganate, you can use 3% of the composition of copper sulfate. Treated in this way, the cuttings are dipped with a paper towel and laid out on paper to dry.
Proper preparation increases the chances of preserving the material for planting. Keep the blanks in a tightly wrapped film in a cool place.Before storage, chubuki must be saturated with moisture.
How to keep grape cuttings in winter to spring
Cuttings are stored in cellars or refrigerators at temperatures ranging from 2 to 6 degrees. Some gardeners use a storage method in which prepared chubuki are buried in the ground. It is important to choose the right place so that the soil remains dry in the fall, and after the snow melted, it did not turn into a swamp. The immersion depth of the material for disembarkation is not less than 25 cm.
Cuttings stored in basements or in refrigerators are periodically checked (approximately once a month). Upon detection of mold or drying of the blanks, it is urgent to take measures to save them. If there is not enough moisture, you should lower the cuttings in a container with water for 6 hours and dry as in the preparation of the material. And in the case of mold, the shoots are thoroughly washed and disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate.
A popular method for storing cuttings is described in a book about growing grapes. For reproduction, annual shoots with healthy buds are selected (the distance between them should be 20 cm or more), the diameter of the branch is 5-6 mm. After disinfection and drying, the cuttings are wrapped in a roll using polyethylene and a layer of steamed sawdust. A tightly tied roll is placed in a bag and sent to storage in a refrigerator (temperature 2-6 ° С). During periodic inspection, attention should be paid to the color of the shoot, it should remain light green.Storage of grapes in the refrigerator
Sprouting chubukov at home
This method is characterized by simplicity of technology and obtaining a rapidly developing bush with a high level of survival rate. The essence of the method is as follows.
- In the autumn, cuttings are 60-90 cm long. After processing, they are wrapped in film and sent to storage in a trench with sand.
- In spring, shoots are picked and cut. at 30-40 cm, while removing the lower eyes is not necessary.
- Cuttings are soaked for about 2 days in water. Capacity with them is set in a cool place (temperature 15-18 °).
- After moistening, the cuttings are lowered into liter jars., filled with water by 2-3 cm. Up to 10 shoots are placed in one container. Tanks with cuttings are placed on the windowsill on the sunny side. With a lack of light, it is recommended to use the backlight with fluorescent lamps.
- After 10-12 days, young shoots are formed from the chugs, and the roots appear a week later.
- After the appearance of the roots, the cuttings are transplanted into packages with soil mixture (soil, sand, humus). Before planting, pruning is necessary, leaving only one, but the strongest sprout (if there is a short internode, two shoots are allowed). Landing is done so that the top remains 10-15 cm cutting.
Next, moderate watering and loosening of the soil. In the first decade of May, the plant is planted in open ground.Sprouting cuttings in water
How to grow Chubukov method Puzenko
This method is also called cloakroom, as the prepared cuttings are folded on the cabinet. The preparatory process involves moisturizing the dense fabric and wrapping the cutting with it (each is wrapped separately).
The lower part of the bundle is placed in the film, after which all blanks are placed on the cabinet in a horizontal position. Chubuk tops are directed towards the wall or window, this will create the optimum temperature for them. Excessive heat provokes intense blooming of the upper part of the shoot. Features methods:
- periodic moistening of the tissue;
- temperature up to 25 °.
The method of proper germination in the filler
This method is characterized by simplicity and favorable conditions for the plant, which is not subjected to stress during transplantation.
The essence of the method consists in immersing the cutting in a container filled with sawdust with hydrogel / sand or other alternative material.
The components used to fill the tank need to be prepared:
- sand is cleared of garbage, washed and filled with boiling water;
- sawdust is also poured boiling water and squeeze.
The cooled sawdust is mixed with sand or hydrogel and filled the prepared container with the mixture obtained. The center is immersed in the filler stalk and periodically moisturize it. Roots appear after 2 weeks, after which the plant is transplanted to a permanent place.Sprouting chubukov in filler
Other rooting methods
The way to root with wicking is also available and simple. The bottom line is the impact on the escape at the same time two different temperatures. This is achieved by immersing the most part of the cutting in the ground, the rest of it is covered with sawdust or sand, and then covered with film.
The root system is formed on the surface, while the fragment immersed in the earth does not develop due to the cool temperature. As soon as the antennae of the root appear on the surface of the stalk, rooting has occurred and the chubuk is transplanted into the ground.
What and when to do with germinated cuttings
Planting of germinated chubukov carried out in the spring, when the seedling will form 2-3 true leaves. Pre-tank with grapes poured water and take out the escape. Roots before instillation are immersed in a clay mash. Also for processing use honey water, which is prepared from 1 liter of water and 1 spoon of honey. The planting process is completed by digging in the cutting and setting the peg as a support. It is recommended to mulch the soil around the bush.After germination, chubuki are sown in the ground and then transplanted to a permanent place of residence.
There are many ways to prepare and store cuttings, and you can easily choose the most suitable one. Then about the loss of variety as a result of the freezing of the vine will not have to worry. The seedling for the warm period will gain strength and grow stronger, which will help him survive the harsh winter under a safe shelter. And after it can be germinated and propagated.