The historical homeland of tomatoes is Latin America. The plant at the genetic level is demanding on the temperature and light regime. Return frosts on the territory of the Central region and Belarus are possible until the end of May. It is extremely undesirable to plant tomato seedlings in open ground before establishing average daily temperatures above +10 degrees.
Terms for planting tomatoes in open ground in Belarus and Kuban
For such regions as Belarus and Kuban that are not similar in climate and light regime, even the agricultural technology of tomatoes differs. It makes no sense to grow seedlings for tomatoes in the Kuban - it is easier and cheaper to sow the seeds immediately in the ground, until the earth has lost the remnants of winter moisture.
The other extreme is that the tomato bush does not have time to grow and give away the harvest in the short summer of Belarus. Only one way out - the use of agricultural technology with a seedling method of growing tomatoes in open ground.Greenhouse to protect seedlings from spring frosts in Belarus
Only in the 2nd half of May - early June, an acceptable temperature is set for growing tomatoes. Given the vagaries of the weather, it is desirable to plant seedlings with the use of light film covers.
- Protection in case of frost - withstands short-term reduction to -2 degrees.
- Transplanted plants under shelter better settle down - there is no need for frequent watering and loosening.
- Convenient for vacationers of the day off - 4-5 working days seedlings do not require attention.
- From the first days of growth, the seedling forms a powerful root system.
- Plants do not need acclimatization after transplantation, due to this - healthier.
- No cost for seedlings.
Varieties that can be planted
Claimed breeders harvest from the beds give only zoned varieties. They are most adapted to the peculiarities of the local climate.
Open ground tomatoes for Belarus
For unprotected soil in cool and short summer zoned varieties are most suitable
- early ripening - "Profitable", "Talalikhin", "White filling" and others;
- mid-season - "Rouge", "Peremoga", "Excellent".
These and other varieties of the Belarusian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing are resistant to bad weather conditions - they are little susceptible to fungal diseases.
The hybrid of early term of maturing fructifies within 25-45 days. Srednerosly bush brings an average of 2.5-3.0 kg of round fruits weighing 80-100 g of excellent taste. This variety is highly resistant to Alternaria and Septoria.
The variety adapted to the conditions of Belarus with an unusually amicable yield. Srednerosly bush brings 2.5-3.0 kg of small, very tasty fruits with a thin peel weighing 60-70 g. These tomatoes are relatively resistant to late blight and other infections.
- Kalinka variety
- Tomatoes Vilina
- Tomatoes Rouge
The average maturity of the variety is entered in the register in 1994. Compact medium-sized bush 50-60 cm with dense foliage gives 2.5-3.0 kg of bright red tomatoes with an average weight of up to 100 g. Tomatoes of high taste rating have a universal purpose.
Resistant to late blight and other fungal diseases.
Varieties for the Krasnodar Territory and the Donetsk region should be drought resistant and adapted to high summer temperatures. Feel good varieties with thick greens, which covers the fruit from the rays of the scorching sun.
Determinant variety of tomatoes for industrial and home cultivation by seedless method. Very fruitful grade for tselnoplodny conservation. With 1 bush you can get up to 10 kg of tomatoes weighing 60-70 grams.
A characteristic feature - the fruits do not crack when processed and retain their presentation in the bank. The only negative - the crop can be obtained only on very fertile soil: ideally - a mixture of humus with sand.
- Tomatoes Asvon
- Gift Kuban
- New Kuban
Srednerosly to 0.7 m tomato with dense large foliage. The vegetation period is 110-115 days. A red-colored tomato is a round tomato slightly pointed towards the bottom. The average yield - up to 5 kg per bush. Fruits of universal purpose weighing 100-120 grams tasty and fleshy. The variety is resistant to cracking and top rot.
The medium late universal ultra determinant variety was developed for mechanized harvesting and processing. Tasting evaluation of fruits - 4.7 points. For summer residents, the variety is convenient in that it does not require daily care; mature heart-shaped fruits do not crack and firmly hold. Tomatoes weighing about 100 grams are collected in brushes (3 pcs. Each) yield from 1 square meter. meters to 7 kg of fruit.
If 3 of these varieties are planted in the backyard, a continuous conveyor of fresh tomatoes is provided for the whole season.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Tomato seedling is ready for transplantation into open ground, when it will form 3-4 pairs of true leaves. This usually happens on the 50-55 day from the time of sowing the seeds. It is possible to sow seeds for seedlings in the normal mode, depending on the variety and area, select the terms.
Preparation of beds
To grow tomatoes in the open air beds should be prepared in advance, preferably in the fall. This is done not only to save time in the spring. Nutrient Enriched the ground should be structured: elements introduced into the soil - to be distributed evenly and by the forces of soil bacteria to be transformed into a form accessible to tomatoes.Autumn preparation of beds is preferable
Under digging from the fall make 1 square. m beds
|Natural||● 5-7 kg (1 bucket) of humus or compost;|
● 0.5 liters wood ash can.
|Mineral||● 80-100 g nitroammofoski (the dose is slightly increased - most will go to the ground with melt water)|
The beds can be prepared and vein. Only this must be done in advance - no less than 2 weeks before planting the seedlings.
Before planting seedlings into the soil, fertilizing is done in 7-10 days; complex fertilizers should be added to young plants. The easiest thing to cook solution feeding "Kemira" or "Master" special for seedlings. It is very simple to prepare them: according to the instructions, 5 grams of fertilizers (1 tsp) are dissolved in 2 liters of water.Hardening seedlings
Seedlings before planting in open ground should be taught to direct light and open air - harden. For such a tempering procedure, seed boxes with tomatoes are taken out at the beginning by 0.5 hours and gradually increase the time to 2 hours.
The distance between the bushes depends on the size of the plant itself. In the backyard, tomatoes should preferably be placed in double rows with a north-south orientation. For the climatic conditions of Belarus, this location has a lot of advantages.
- Srednerosly grades (from 50 cm) grow better on supports. Dual rows allow you to fix bushes on a common trellis or wire.
- Tomatoes are evenly illuminated by the sun during the day and are well ventilated. This is the best prevention of fungal diseases.
- If necessary, the double row can be easily protected with a light film cover on the arcs.
- All tomatoes at a glance - to care for the garden and harvest the crop easily.
|Belarus||Pretty cool and raw summer||Free location on the garden for better airing and lighting|
|Kuban||Hot sun and little rain|
For Belarus, the optimal distance for medium-sized tomato varieties is 50 cm in a row and 60-70 cm between rows for band planting in double rows. The passage between the rows must be at least 1 m.
- Frequent compact landing for Kuban
- Rare landing suitable for Belarus
Errors that gardeners make when transplanting into the ground
Growing tomatoes will not be difficult even for novice gardeners. Tomatoes have never been special sissies - this is a very hardy plant.
There are a number of errors that can be avoided.
- Too early planting seedlings in open ground.
- Fertilization of excess fertilizer per well. Nitrogen fertilizers make you gain green mass rather than form flowers and ovaries.
- Excessive watering, including watering on the leaves, which will inevitably lead to an epidemic of fungi.
- The thickening of the beds in the conditions of Belarus will not lead to the expected increase in yield, but will only provoke diseases.
- As soon as the seedlings take root, start the formation of a bush - this will improve ventilation and increase plant immunity.
- Stop watering as soon as the tomatoes have accumulated a characteristic variety.
The climate of Belarus is very different from the subtropics - the home of the nightshade. Key points for the success of growing tomatoes in Belarus:
- calculate correctly planting dates for seedlings;
- time to plant young plants in the prepared garden;
- provide maximum comfort for seedlings until it grows.
Observance of simple rules guarantees the harvest of zoned varieties of tomatoes.