Potatoes are the most popular culture in Russia. It grows in every garden, and with the arrival of autumn is removed in the cellar for long-term storage. But, unfortunately, it happens that the tubers of potatoes begin to turn black. The most common reason for this process is improper storage. Let's see why this happens and what to do if the shoots managed to freeze.
Even seemingly healthy vegetables can have black spots. Why this happens is often a secret. If this problem has spread to most of the crop, measures need to be taken urgently.
What varieties can be stored in winter
There are about 380 varieties of potatoes. All differ in skin color, pulp, taste, root size, ripening. Choosing potatoes for long-term storage, you need to be guided by another indicator - its keeping quality.
The storage of potatoes is directly influenced by the selected variety based on ripening terms. The most unsuitable variety is early ripe; such a vegetable is intended for eating in summer and at the beginning of autumn, a maximum. Varieties with medium and late ripening are suitable for long-term storage.Early ripe potato varieties are not intended for long-term storage.
When choosing a term, you need to look to the technical maturity of the root 100-130 days. Such potatoes form a thick peel, copes well with diseases, contains a large amount of tannins.
Late varieties for long storage most suitable. They contain a large number of trace elements and without problems will be kept until spring. Popular late varieties: "Picasso", "Zhuravinka", "Lorch", "Atlant", "Vesnyanka."
The desired temperature and humidity for potatoes
Store the vegetable should be at a temperature +2 +6 degrees, and the humidity should be at the level of 80-90%. The most suitable storage room is a cellar or cellar.It is best to store potatoes in a cellar with a temperature of + 4 + 6 degrees
Ventilation is desirable. At a temperature of 0-1 degrees, the potatoes do not rot, but become sweetish, and the flesh darkens. At a temperature of 7-12 degrees, the tubers begin to germinate, become soft, there are spots on the pulp.
Why do potatoes turn black inside during storage
Darkening can occur due to a disease - gray spot.
The main causes of darkening:
- culture does not like fresh organic, as the excess nitrogen is released, which contributes to the growth of fungi. This contributes to the darkening of the potato;
- when a root crop is born, there is a shortage or excess of moisture;
- the crop is harvested ahead of time, the pulp darkens in the unripe potato. Overripe potatoes, during heat, may deteriorate when stored in an overheated room;
- if the harvest is done late during the frost period, the tubers may overheat, the flesh may darken. At a soil temperature of -2 degrees and frost, the tubers begin to rot;
- substandard transportation: shock, pressure;
- improper storage conditions over a long period. Temperature is above or below 2-6 degrees;
- tubers contain a high percentage of starch;
- disease defeat - blackleg. It is transmitted through the planting material, the disease and the blackness continue during storage.
- Gray spot
- Black leg struck tubers
Why does blacken in spring
It happens that the vegetable has survived the winter well, and with the arrival of spring it begins to turn black. The reason may be in poor ventilation.
Potatoes begin to sweep with the advent of warming and sprout in the spring, the flesh darkens, it becomes sluggish and soft. There is a sharp temperature drop in the storage. Moisture is released and this again contributes to the debate.
What can and should be done so that the vegetable does not darken
Install pallets and move away from walls. on 20 cm. Due to this, you can avoid: wet and freeze.
During the winter period it is recommended to sort the potatoes at least once and remove the sprouted tubers, soft, rotted. The harvest stored in the apartment on the balcony is recommended to be covered with a warm blanket.
After harvesting you need within 20 days leave the potatoes for airing in the fresh air. It is forbidden to store the root vegetable with other vegetables, except for beets.After harvesting for 20 days, potatoes need to be ventilated outdoors.
During the frost period
Sometimes it happens that a vegetable gets frost. It is not at all dangerous if the potato has not risen. But if sprouts appeared, the arrival of frosts can affect the quality of the future crop and beat it.
Are chills terrible for culture?
Spring frosts scary for the harvest potato This is especially true of the regions of Siberia. Young sprouts of potatoes are afraid of frost and are especially sensitive to spring frosts and any temperature from 0 and below can kill the crop.
Will the potatoes go away after freezing?
If the young sprouts are frozen, this may affect the future harvest, although the potatoes will continue to grow with warming. Older plants are not very affected by cold.Frozen young potato sprouts
How to save after frost
If you promise frosts, you need an emergency spud shoots culture, and after frost to free the bushes that ridges.
To avoid freezing and give the potatoes a chance to survive if they managed to freeze it, you can warm the vegetable by covering the planting with grass. Some gardeners plant fires from straw, shavings on the edges of arable land and thereby insulate the soil. To increase the smoke mass, it is recommended to drop mineral oils or coal tar into the fire. You can also cover the beds with foil.
If the frosts have passed, and the vegetable has already managed to freeze, you need to allow the bushes to restore themselves independently. Damaged bushes are able to recover, albeit with great effort. To help the crop, you need to feed it with nitrogen fertilizers.
The reasons that the potatoes in the garden frost
If the air temperature dropped below zero degrees, or night frosts began in the spring, the potatoes begin to freeze and may freeze. It affects sprouts, they blacken and wither. In the future, even if the plants continue to grow and "move away", the fruit pulp may begin to turn black.
What to do if shoots and tops managed to freeze
If the frosts began suddenly and the shoots froze, then you need darken them before dawn with the help of: newspapers, dark film, rags.
How to feed
Affected crop needs treatment nitrogen, and it is also necessary to make the feeding: nitrophoska 5 gr. on 1 sq. m.
Also useful foliar fertilizer urea 20g per 10 liters of water. To frostbite tops came to life, you need to spray it "Epinay Extra".
If the frosts began when the harvest had faded, but it was not yet harvested, then you can feed it with ashes or potash preparations. After the cold, digging potatoes is prohibited, you need to wait for warming.
- Affected potatoes are treated with nitrogen.
- Frozen tops need to process Appin
The first action, if you hit the frost after landing
If after planting they grabbed and hit the frost, the vegetable managed to freeze, then in order to save it - it is urgently necessary to reanimate and process it with special means.
Ways to save the harvest, if frost foreshadows:
- hilling. After frosts, sprouts are affected, so you should pile up the harvest so that the tops are completely under the ridge;
- mulching. Heat crop with a thick layer of straw, hay or sawdust;
- harboring the crop film. Only the film should not put pressure on young shoots. Pegs should be installed along the perimeter and the film tensioned;
- sprinkling. The crop needs to be poured abundantly with water when t is 0. Water will begin to evaporate and protect the plant;
- smoke warming. Above mentioned about this method of protection against frost. It is necessary to kindle a fire on both sides of the crop, so that the smoke will cover the whole area. To create a smoke screen, you need to kindle a fire so that the fire burns 50-70 cm in height. To do this, you can burn straw, wood, manure. The fire should burn for 3-4 hours in the morning. The method is effective only in windy weather;
- strengthening the immunity of culture. It should be even before planting the crop to strengthen the planting material with growth regulators drugs. They help young shoots to endure any weather conditions. The most popular are: Silk, Biostim, Epin Extra.
To provide yourself and your family with potatoes for the whole winter, you need to choose the most "tenacious" potato variety, just follow the rules for storing root crops. You have a rich harvest!